This webinar will provided the latest information on lithium, focusing on new insights into the use of lithium during pregnancy and breastfeeding, and lithium’s renal related risks. Important points of emphasis will include the modest effects of lithium on renal function when dosed once daily and 12h outpatient levels are maintained in recommended range of 0.60 – 0.80 mEq/l, and never > 1.00 mEq/l. Attendees will also learn about the importance of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), how lithium enters ENaC on distal tubule prinicipal cells and induces polyuria, and why this is the harbinger of renal related adverse effects. Importantly, attendees will be provided modern methods for polyuria monitoring (e.g. Early Morning Urine Osmolality) and its treatment with amiloride, and occasionally adjunctive acetazolamide. As use of VPA has fallen out of favor in the use and has been banned in women of reproductive potential in Western Europe and the UK, clinicians must become adept at using lithium for patients with a history of mania.